Associate Professor of Urban Design
Areas of Interest
Stefan Al is an architect, urban designer, urban planner, scholar, educator, and author, currently serving as Associate Professor of Urban Design at the University of Pennsylvania. In his research, Professor Al aims to understand pressing issues in architecture and urban design, such as urbanization in developing countries, new forms of consumerism, compact city form, and adapting cities to climate change.
His recent sole-authored book The Strip: Las Vegas and the Architecture of the American Dream (The MIT Press) investigates the city’s experiments with architecture and branding. He is acclaimed for his work on Asian urbanism with published books investigating China’s informal settlements and Hong Kong’s compact urban form, including Factory Towns of South China, Villages in the City, Mall City, and Macau and the Casino Complex. He co-authored the book Beyond Mobility, making the case to connect people with places through transit-oriented development. His latest research is focused on designing compact and more resilient cities, most notably in his forthcoming book Adapting Cities to Sea Level Rise. Besides his academic publications, his work has been featured in influential media outlets including The Guardian, The Wall Street Journal, NPR, Marketplace, and Dezeen.
Al’s career as a practicing architect includes work on renowned projects such as the 2,000-feet high Canton Tower in Guangzhou, the preservation of world heritage in Latin America at the World Heritage Center of UNESCO, and an 11,000-acre new eco-friendly city in India. He has also served as an advisor to the Hong Kong government, consulting on the development of the city’s harbor and external lighting guidelines, the Chinese government, advising on new urban design guidelines, and the United Nations High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development.
Al, Stefan. 2017. The Strip: Las Vegas and the Architecture of the American Dream. The MIT Press.
Al, Stefan, ed. 2016. Mall City: Hong Kong’s Dreamworlds of Consumption. University of Hawaii Press.
Al, Stefan, ed. 2014. Villages in the City: A Guide to South China’s Informal Settlements. University of Hawaii Press; Hong Kong University Press.
Al, Stefan, ed. 2012. Factory Towns of South China: An Illustrated Guidebook. Hong Kong University Press.
Areas of Interest
Francesca Russello Ammon is Assistant Professor of City and Regional Planning and Historic Preservation in the School of Design. As a cultural historian of the built environment, her teaching, research, and writing focus on the changing shapes and spaces of the 20th- and 21st-century American city. She grounds her interdisciplinary approach to this subject in the premise that the landscape materializes social relations, cultural values, and economic processes. In particular, she is interested in the ways that visual culture informs planning and design, the dynamic relationships between cities and nature, and the politics of place and space.
Before joining the School of Design faculty, Ammon was a Visiting Scholar at the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She has also held the Sally Kress Tompkins Fellowship, jointly sponsored by the Society of Architectural Historians (SAH) and the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS). While completing her Ph.D. in American Studies, she held long-term fellowships as a Whiting Fellow in the Humanities, Ambrose Monell Foundation Fellow in Technology and Democracy at the Miller Center of Public Affairs, and John E. Rovensky Fellow with the Business History Conference.
For the past year and a half, Ammon has been a Researcher on the Mellon Foundation-funded project on “Photography and/of Architecture” at the Canadian Centre for Architecture. She is also currently a colloquium member of the Penn/Mellon Foundation Humanities + Urbanism + Design Initiative, and she is a recent past fellow of Penn’s Price Lab for Digital Humanities.
Ammon is on the board of the Society for American City and Regional Planning History (SACRPH).
Ammon, Francesca Russello. 2016. Bulldozer: Demolition and Clearance of the Postwar Landscape. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Ammon, Francesca Russello. 2015. “Post-Industrialization and the City of Consumption: Attempted Revitalization in Asbury Park, New Jersey.” Journal of Urban History 41(2): 158-174.
Ammon, Francesca Russello. 2012. “Unearthing Benny the Bulldozer: The Culture of Clearance in Postwar Children’s Books.” Technology and Culture 53(2): 306-336.
Ammon, Francesca Russello. 2009. “Commemoration Amid Criticism: The Mixed Legacy of Urban Renewal in Southwest Washington, D.C.” Journal of Planning History 8(3): 175-220.
Professor Emeritus of Practice in City and Regional Planning
Areas of Interest
Jonathan Barnett is Professor Emeritus of Practice in City and Regional Planning and former Director of the Urban Design Program in the School of Design. He is an architect and planner as well as an educator and is the author of numerous books and articles on the theory and practice of city design. He has been an advisor to the cities of Charleston, SC, Cleveland, Kansas City, Miami, Nashville, New York City, Norfolk, Omaha, and Pittsburgh in the United States, as well as Xiamen and Tianjin in China. He has been the William Henry Bishop visiting professor at Yale, the Eschweiler Professor at the University of Wisconsin, the Kea Distinguished Visiting Professor at the University of Maryland, and the Sam Gibbons Eminent Scholar at the University of South Florida, and is a guest professor at Southeast University in Nanjing. With his co-author, Larry Beasley, he teaches an on-line course, Ecodesign for Cities and Suburbs, which is available on edX. Barnett was awarded the Dale Prize for Excellence in Urban Design and Regional Planning, the Athena Medal from the Congress for the New Urbanism, and the William H. Whyte Award from the Partners for Livable Communities for being a pioneer in urban design education and practice.
Barnett, Jonathan and Brian W. Blaesser. 2017. Reinventing Development Regulation. Cambridge MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.
Barnett, Jonathan. 2016. City Design: Modernist, Traditional, Green, and Systems Perspectives, 2nd Edition. New York, NY: Routledge.
Barnett, Jonathan and Larry Beasley. 2015. Ecodesign for Cities and Suburbs. Washington: Island Press.
Barnett, Jonathan, editor. 2007. Smart Growth in a Changing World. Chicago, Ill. : Planners Press, American Planning Association.
Barnett, Jonathan. 2012. “Jane Jacobs and Designing Cities as Organized Complexity.” In The Urban Wisdom of Jane Jacobs, edited by Sonia Hirt and Diane Zamora. New York, NY: Routledge.
Senior Research Scholar at the NYU Stern Urbanization Project
Alain Bertaud is a senior research scholar at the NYU Stern Urbanization Project. His main area of research is the impact of markets, transportation, and regulations on urban form. At the moment, he is writing a book about urban planning that is tentatively titled Order Without Design. Bertaud previously held the position of principal urban planner at the World Bank, where he worked on urban policy and urban infrastructure development in India, in transition economies such as China, Russia, and countries of Eastern Europe. After retiring from the Bank in 1999, he worked as an independent consultant. Prior to joining the World Bank he worked as a resident urban planner in a number of cities around the world: Bangkok, San Salvador (El Salvador), Port au Prince (Haiti), Sana’a (Yemen), New York, Paris, Tlemcen (Algeria), and Chandigarh (India).
Bertaud’s research, conducted in collaboration with his wife Marie-Agnès, aims to bridge the gap between operational urban planning and urban economics. Their work focuses primarily on the interaction between urban forms, real estate markets and regulations. Bertaud’s publications can be downloaded from: http://alainbertaud.com.
Bertaud, Alain and Brueckner, Jan K. 2005. Analyzing building-height restrictions: predicted impacts and welfare costs. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 35: 109-125.
Bertaud, Alain. 2003. Clearing the air in Atlanta: transit and smart growth or conventional economics? Journal of Urban Economics, 54: 379–400.
Bertaud, Alain. 2010. Land Markets, Government Interventions and Housing Affordability. Wolfensohn Center for Development Working Paper 18.
Bertaud, Alain and Malpezzi, Stephen. 2001. Measuring the Costs and Benefits of Urban Land Use Regulation: A Simple Model with an Application to Malaysia. Journal of Housing Economics,10: 393–418.
Eugénie L. Birch
Lawrence C. Nussdorf Professor of Urban Research and Education
Chair of the Graduate Group in City and Regional Planning
Co-Director, Penn Institute for Urban Research
Areas of Interest
Eugenie Birch is the Lawrence C. Nussdorf Chair of Urban Research and Education. She teaches courses in global urbanization and the doctoral seminar and serves as chair, Graduate Group in City and Regional Planning, co-director, Penn Institute for Urban Research, co-editor, City in the 21st Century Series, University of Penn Press and co-editor, SSRN Urban Research e-journal. With Penn IUR she recently completed a project “Entreprenuership & Innovation in Connecticut’s Higher Education System,” for the state of Connecticut.
Professor Birch’s current research focuses on global urbanization with recent publications including: Slums, How Informal Real Estate Markets Work, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press (2016) (edited with Susan Wachter, Shahana Chattaraj); “Midterm Report: Will Habitat III Make a Difference to Global Urban Development?” Journal of the American Planning Association 84:4 (Fall 2016); “The Institutions of Metropolitan Governance,” in D.A. Gomez-Alvarez, E. Moreno and R. Rajack (eds), Steering the Metropolis: Metropolitan Governance for Sustainable Urban Development (Nairobi: UN Habitat, 2017); “Inclusion and Innovation: The Many Forms of Stakeholder Engagement in Habitat III,” Citiscape (July 2017); “Implementing the New Urban Agenda in the United States, Building on a Firm Foundation,” Informationen zur Raumentwicklung (Information on Spatial Development) (Summer 2017).
Professor Birch has been active in the field’s professional and civic organizations in the United States and abroad. She is president, General Assembly of Partners (GAP), the engagement platform for the implementation of the UN’s New Urban Agenda and associated global agreements, co-chair, Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) Thematic Group on Cities, and an Associate Editor, Journal of the American Planning Association. In the past, she has been president, Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning; president, Society of American City and Regional Planning History; president, International Planning History Society; and co-editor, Journal of the American Planning Association. She has been a member of the Planning Accreditation Board, having served as its chair from 2004-2006. She has been a member of the editorial boards of Planning Theory and Practice, Journal of Planning History, Journal of Planning Education and Research and Planning Perspectives. In the early 1990s, she was a member of the New York City Planning Commission, and in 2002, she served on the jury to select the designers for the World Trade Center site. She has chaired the Board of Trustees of the Municipal Art Society of New York and is currently a member of the Board of Trustees of the Regional Plan Association of New York.
Professor Birch lectures widely. She has been Visiting Scholar, Queens University, Ontario, Canada; Foreign Scholar, University of Hong Kong; and Visiting Professor, University of the Witswatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. In May 2017, she delivered the keynote address, “Making Cities Safe, Inclusive, Resilient and Sustainable,” at the Dresden Nexus Conference, Dresden, Germany and “Post Habitat III Stakeholder Engagement: An Update” at the Wilson Center, Washington, DC.
The Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning has given her its three awards: the Distinguished Educator Award in recognition of her teaching and research (2009), the Jay Chatterjee Award for Distinguished Service that “recognizes an individual whose exceptional service, actions and leadership have had a lasting and positive impact on the ACSP”(2006), and the Margarita McCoy Award, “in recognition of her outstanding contribution to furthering the advancement of women in the planning academy” (1994). The Society of American City and Regional Planning History awarded her its Lawrence C. Gerckens Prize (2009) in recognition of her contributions to planning history. The American Planning Association honored her with their APA President’s Award in 2013. This award is given out every other year in recognition of leadership in the field of planning. In 2000, she was elected to the College of Fellows of the American Institute of Certified Planners and made a member (honorary) of the Royal Town Planning Institute.
The statement made by Professor Birch at the closing ceremony of the UN Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development (Habitat III) can be found here: http://webtv.un.org/meetings-events/watch/professor-of-education-and-research-of-university-of-pennsylvania-habitat-iii-closure-ceremony/5179115593001
Birch, Eugenie. 2017. “The Institutions of Metropolitan Governance.” In Steering the Metropolis: Metropolitan Governance for Sustainable Urban Development, edited by D.A. Gomez-Alvarez, E. Moreno, and R. Rajack. Nairobi: UN Habitat.
Birch, Eugenie. 2017. “Inclusion and Innovation: The Many Forms of Stakeholder Engagement in Habitat III.” Citiscape (July).
Birch, Eugenie. 2017. “Implementing the New Urban Agenda in the United States, Building on a Firm Foundation.” Informationen zur Raumentwicklung (Information on Spatial Development) (Summer).
Birch, Eugenie, Susan Wachter, and Shahana Chattaraj , eds. 2016. Slums, How Informal Real Estate Markets Work. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Birch, Eugenie. 2016. “Midterm Report: Will Habitat III Make a Difference to Global Urban Development?” Journal of the American Planning Association 84:4.
Associate Professor of City and Regional Planning, Georgia Institute of Technology
Areas of Interest
Nisha Botchwey is an Associate Professor of City and Regional Planning at the Georgia Institute of Technology. An expert in health and the built environment as well as community engagement, she holds graduate degrees in both urban planning and public health. Dedicated to effective pedagogy, Dr. Botchwey spent eight years as a professor at the University of Virginia, jointly appointed to the Department of Urban and Environmental Planning and the Department of Public Health Sciences, before arriving at Georgia Tech. Dr. Botchwey has published and researched widely, and currently focuses on topics including health and the built environment, public engagement methodologies, faith-based and secular organizations, and health equity. She is co-author of Health Impact Assessment in the USA (in press), convener of a national expert panel on interdisciplinary workforce training between the public health and community design fields, and author of numerous articles. Dr. Botchwey has won distinctions including an NSF ADVANCE Woman of Excellence Faculty Award, a Hesburgh Award Teaching Fellowship from Georgia Tech, and a Rockefeller-Penn Fellowship from the University of Pennsylvania’s School of Nursing. She also serves on the Advisory Board to the Director of the Centers of Disease Control Prevention and is co-Director of the National Academy of Environmental Design’s Research Committee.
Botchwey, N., C. Ross, M. Orenstein. Health Impact Assessments in the USA. New York: Springer, 2014.
Botchwey, N., T. Fisher, M. Trowbridge. (2013). Green Health. Journal of Planning Education Research, in press.
Botchwey, N., Guhathakurta, S., Lee, S. & Leous, A. (forthcoming). Quality of Life and Health in Atlanta. In H. Etienne and B. Faga (editors) Planning Atlanta. Chicago, IL: Planners Press.
Trowbridge, M., T. Huang, N. Botchwey, T. Fisher, C. Pyke, A. Rodgers, R. Ballard-Barbash. (2013). Green Building and Childhood Obesity Prevention: Toward and Integrated ‘Green Health’ Environmental Design Research Framework. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, Forthcoming, in press.
Dyjack, D.T., N. Botchwey, E. Marziale. (2013). Cross-sectoral Workforce Development: Examining the Intersection of Public Health and Community Design. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 19(1): 97-99.
Miers Busch Professor of Statistics
Areas of Interest
Lawrence Brown is the Miers Busch Professor of Statistics in the Department of Statistics at The Wharton School. His research areas include statistical decision theory, statistical inference, nonparametric function estimation, foundations of statistics, sampling theory, and empirical queuing science.
Brown, Lawrence D., National Research Council (U.S.) Panel on the Design of the 2010 Census Program of Evaluations and Experiments. 2010. Envisioning the 2020 Census. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Brown, L. D., T. J. Plewes, and M. A. Gerstein. 2005. Measuring Research and Development in the United States Economy. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Brown, L. D., N. Gans, A. Mandelbaum, A. Sakov, H. Shen, S. Zeltyn, and L. H. Zhao. 2005. “Statistical Analysis of a Telephone Call Center: a Queuing Science Perspective.” Journal of American Statistical Association 100.
Brown, L. D., T. T. Cai, and A. DasGupta. 1999. “Interval Estimation for a Binomial Proportion.” Statistical Science 16.
Brown, L. D. and M. G. Low. 1996. “Asymptotic Equivalence of Nonparametric Regression and White Noise.” Annals of Statistics 24.
Peter Hendee Brown
Urban Development Consultant; Lecturer, Humphrey School of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota
Peter Hendee Brown is an urban development consultant to public, private, and nonprofit organizations including the City of Minneapolis and Target Corporation. He teaches private sector development at the University of Minnesota’s Humphrey School of Public Affairs and he has also taught urban design and site planning. Brown’s research program draws upon his multi-disciplinary background in architecture, planning, government administration, and real estate development, connecting his experience as a practitioner with teaching and writing about urban redevelopment from multiple viewpoints. In 2009, Brown published his acclaimed book America’s Waterfront Revival: Port Authorities and Urban Redevelopment. The book focuses on four major port-based cities in the United States, analyzes their history, and considers the challenges and opportunities of waterfront redevelopment. Brown is currently completing a book about how real estate developers think for people who study them and work with them, from planners and architects to elected officials, city staff, and members of the community.
Brown, Peter Hendee. 2014, forthcoming. Selling Dreams: How Real Estate Developers Think About Design, Profits, and the Community. Philadelphia, PA: The University of Pennsylvania Press.
Brown, Peter Hendee and Peter V. Hall. 2013. “Ports and Waterfronts.” In Infrastructure Planning and Finance: A Smart and Sustainable Guide, Vicki Elmer and Adam Liegland, eds. New York: Routledge Press.
Brown, Peter Hendee. 2013. “The Delaware River Port Authority.” In The Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia, Charlene Mires, Howard Gillette, and Randall Miller, eds. Mid-Atlantic Regional Center for the Humanities at Rutgers-Camden. Available online; Print volume to be published by The University of Pennsylvania Press (forthcoming).
Brown, Peter Hendee. 2011. “The Diversified Waterfront and the New Port Authority.” In The Port City in the XXI Century: New Challenges in the Relationship between Port and City, Rinio Bruttomesso and Joan Alemany, eds. Venice: RETE.
Brown, Peter Hendee. 2008. America’s Waterfront Revival: Port Authorities and Urban Redevelopment. Philadelphia, PA: The University of Pennsylvania Press.
Julien Studley Fellow, Milano School of International Affairs, The New School
Bob is the Julien Studley Fellow in the Graduate Program in International Affairs at The New School. Previously, he was Managing Director at the Rockefeller Foundation, and Advisor at the World Bank. His work has focused on urbanization in developing countries. A significant part involved preparing projects and grants related to urban development issues. He has worked in more than 55 countries and has written widely on urbanization, housing, and development issues in the popular press, such as the Financial Times, the New York Times, and the Washington Post, as well as in academic journals such as the Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Nature, the Journal of Money,Credit and Banking, and Economic Development and Cultural Change. His most recent book, Urbanization and Economic Growth, was co-edited with Michael Spence and Patricia Annez. Buckley has also taught at Syracuse University, Johns Hopkins University, and the University of Pennsylvania—and served as the chief economist of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Finally, he has been a Fulbright Scholar, awarded a Regent’s Fellowship at the University of California, and been supported by the Marshall Fund, the Gates Foundation, the National Science Foundation, and the International Growth Centre of Oxford University.
Buckley, Robert and Achilles Kallergis. 2014. Does African Urban Policy Provide a Platform for Sustained Economic Growth? In The Handbook on Cities in the Global South, S. Parnell and S. Oldfield, (eds.) New York: Routledge.
Buckley, Robert, Patricia Annez and Michael Spence. 2009. Urbanization and Economic Growth. The World Bank on behalf of the Commission on Growth and Development, Washington D.C.
Buckley, Robert, Glumira Karaguishiyeva, Robert Van Order, and Laura Vecvagare. March 2006. Mortgage Credit Risk in EU Countries: Constraints on Exploiting the Single Currency Market, The European Journal of Law and Economics.
Buckely, Robert and Jerry Kalarickal. Sept. 2005. Housing Policy in Developing Countries: Conjectures and Refutations, World Bank Research Observer.
Raymond J. Burby
Professor Emeritus, City and Regional Planning, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Raymond Burby is Professor Emeritus in City and Regional Planning at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, a member of the College of Fellows of the American Institute of Certified Planners, and a member of various other organizations concerned with urban planning. He has been the author or editor of fourteen books and written numerous articles, including papers published in the Journal of the American Planning Association, Public Administration Review, Journal of Planning Education and Research, and Land Economics. Burby’s research and publications encompass many topics and incorporate his work on mitigation of natural hazards, land-use and environmental planning, housing and community development, and planning processes and administration.
Burby, Raymond J. and Peter J. May. 2009. Command or Cooperate: Rethinking Traditional Central Governments’ Hazard Mitigation Policies. In Building Safer Communities 58, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series, Urbano Fra Paleo, ed. Amsterdam: IOS Press.
Burby, Raymond J. 2006. Hurricane Katrina and the Paradoxes of Government Disaster Policy: Bringing About Wise Governmental Decisions for Hazardous Areas. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 604(1): 171-191.
Burby, Raymond J. 2005. Have State Comprehensive Planning Mandates Reduced Insured Losses in Natural Disasters? Natural Hazards Review, 6: 67-81.
Nelson, Arthur C., Raymond J. Burby, Edward Feser, Casey J. Dawkins, Emil E. Malizia, and Roberto Quercia. 2004. Urban Containment and Central City Revitalization. Journal of the American Planning Association, 70: 411-425.
Burby, Raymond J. 2003. Making Plans that Matter: Citizen Involvement and Government Action. Journal of the American Planning Association, 69(1): 33-49.
Burby, Raymond J., Laura J. Steinberg, and Victoria Basolo. 2003. The Tenure Trap: The Vulnerability of Renters to Joint Natural and Technological Disasters. Urban Affairs Review, 39: 32-59.
Associate Professor, Department of Graduate Built Environment Studies, School of Architecture and Planning, Morgan State University
Daniel Campo is Associate Professor in the School of Architecture and Planning at Morgan State University in Baltimore. Campo’s research explores informal, insurgent and do-it-yourself development practices and their intersection with professional urban planning, design and preservation. His book, The Accidental Playground: Brooklyn Waterfront Narratives of the Undesigned and Unplanned was named by the New York Times as one of a ten book “urban canon” of suggested reading for the New York City Mayor. Campo has also published articles on a range of urban topics, including public space studies, downtown and waterfront revitalization, historic preservation, history of the built environment, shrinking cities, and urban arts and culture. His current research examines sub-professional and grassroots efforts to preserve, reuse and enjoy iconic but decaying industrial complexes across the North American Rustbelt.
Campo, Daniel, “Iconic Eyesores: Exploring Do-it-yourself Preservation and Civic Improvement at Abandoned Train Stations in Buffalo and Detroit,” Journal of Urbanism 7-4 (2014).
Campo, Daniel, “Postindustrial Futures: Adaptive Reuse versus ‘as is’ Preservation,” in Schwarz, Terry, ed., Historic Preservation and Urban Change (Cleveland: Kent State University, 2014).
Campo, Daniel, The Accidental Playground: Brooklyn Waterfront Narratives of the Undesigned and Unplanned (New York: Fordham University Press, 2013).
Ryan, Brent D. and Daniel Campo, “Autotopia’s End: The Decline and Fall of Detroit’s Automotive Manufacturing Landscape,” Journal of Planning History 12-2 (2013).
Campo, Daniel, “In the Footsteps of the Federal Writers’ Project: Revisiting the Workshop of the World,” Landscape Journal 29-2 (2010).
Campo, Daniel and Brent D. Ryan, “The Entertainment Zone: Unplanned Nightlife and the Revitalization of the American Downtown,” Journal of Urban Design 13-3 (2008).
Friesen Chair of Urban Studies, Professor of City and Regional Planning, College of Environmental Design, University of California – Berkeley
Robert Cervero is Friesen Chair of Urban Studies and Professor of City and Regional Planning in the College of Environmental Design at the University of California – Berkeley. He is also the Director of both the Institute of Urban and Regional Development and the University of California Transportation Center. Cervero’s research and teaching focus on transportation planning, transportation and land use, infrastructure planning, and international development. His research on transportation focuses on how new urban developments and transformations impact travel behavior. In 2004, Cervero was the first-ever recipient of the Dale Prize for Excellence in Urban Planning Research. He has won the Article of The Year award for two separate articles from the Journal of the American Planning Association.
Cervero, Robert. 1998 (1st ed). The Transit Metropolis: A Global Inquiry. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Ewing, Reid and Robert Cervero. 2010. Travel and the Built Environment: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of the American Planning Association, 76(3): 265-294.
Cervero, Robert. 2013 (reprint edition). Suburban Gridlock. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research.
Cervero, Robert. 1997. Paratransit in America: Redefining Mass Transportation. New York: Prager.